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  1. Edgehill | battlefieldsinaction
  2. 1642 events
  3. ECW Blogs -- Sometimes
  4. Edgehill: The Battle Reinterpreted
  5. Review of Scott, Turton and Gruber, Edgehill: The Battle Reinterpreted

Publisher: The Ely Society: Paperback; crease to title page otherwise good in card covers. Publisher: Sutton: Hardback; very good in lightly creased dustjacket. Signed by the Author.

Edgehill | battlefieldsinaction

By: Firth, C. Hardacre, P. Paperback; good in creased, yellowed and marked card covers.

Firth, with a new Introduction. Publisher: Cromwell Museum, Huntingdon: Booklet, very good in marked card covers. Paperback; edge of pages yellowed otherwise good in creased card covers. By: Hill, P. Publisher: University of California Press: Hardback; very good in torn, part-missing and faded dustjacket. New hardback copies at a reduced price; The forgotten women of Cromwell's family who rose from being minor gentry to semi-royal status and then plunged into lowly anonymity at the Restoration. Publisher: Tuckwell Press: Paperback; very good in creased card covers.

Hardback; ownership stamp to endpaper otherwise good in torn dustjacket. By: Gaunt, P. Publisher: The Cromwell Association: Paperback; good in creased card covers. Produced for the anniversary of his birth.

1642 events

By: Momigliano, E. Marshall, L. Hardback without dustjacket, edge of pages a little yellowed otherwise very good in faded green cloth boards. No published date, but appears to be the First English edition, circa s?

ECW Blogs -- Sometimes

Three booklets; new copies. Illustrated; Agriculture; pages View more info. Publisher: Iowa State University Press: There was a last-minute change of command when the Colonel General, Lord Lindsey , was overruled when he wished to deploy them in "Dutch" formation, simple phalanxes eight ranks deep. Affronted, he resigned his command and took his place at the head of his own regiment of foot.

Edgehill: The Battle Reinterpreted

He was replaced by the Lieutenant General, Patrick Ruthven , who drew up the infantry in chequerboard "Swedish" formation, which was potentially more effective but also more difficult to control, particularly with inexperienced soldiers. The left wing consisted of horse under Sir Henry Wilmot , with Lord Digby , the King's secretary of state, in support and Colonel Arthur Aston 's dragoons on his left flank.

The Parliamentarian left wing consisted of a loosely organised cavalry brigade of twenty unregimented troops under Sir James Ramsay, supported by musketeers and several cannon, deployed behind a hedge. In the centre, the infantry brigade of Sir John Meldrum was drawn up on the left of the front line and Colonel Charles Essex's brigade on the right. A regiment of infantry under Colonel William Fairfax linked the centre to the right wing.

The right wing consisted of cavalry under Lord Feilding , posted on some rising ground, with two regiments of dragoons in support. As Essex showed no signs of wishing to attack, the Royalists began to descend the slope of Edgehill some time after midday. Even when they had completed this manoeuvre at about two o'clock, the battle did not begin until the sight of the King with his large entourage riding from regiment to regiment to encourage his soldiers, apparently goaded the Parliamentarians into opening fire. The King's party withdrew out of range and an artillery duel took place.

The Royalist guns were comparatively ineffective as most of them were deployed some way up the slope, and from this height most of their shot plunged harmlessly into the earth. While the bombardment continued however, the Royalist dragoons advanced on each flank and drove back the Parliamentarian dragoons and musketeers covering their wings of horse. On the right flank, Rupert gave the order to attack.

As his charge gathered momentum, a troop of Parliamentarian horse under Faithfull Fortescue abruptly defected. The rest of Ramsay's brigade gave an ineffectual volley of pistol fire from the saddle before turning to flee. Rupert's and Byron's troopers rapidly overran the Parliamentarian guns and musketeers on this flank and galloped jubilantly in pursuit of Ramsay's men, to the detriment of the infantry. Wilmot charged about the same time on the other flank. Feilding's outnumbered troops quickly gave way, and Wilmot and Digby also chased them to Kineton where the Royalist horse fell out to loot the Parliamentarian baggage.

Sir Charles Lucas and Lord Grandison rallied about men, but when they tried to charge the Parliamentarian rear, they were distracted by fugitives from Charles Essex's routed brigade. The Royalist infantry also advanced in the centre under Ruthven. Many of the Parliamentarian foot had already run away as their cavalry disappeared, and others fled as the infantry came to close quarters.

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The Parliamentarian cavalry regiments of Stapleton and Balfour emerged through gaps in the line of Parliamentarian foot soldiers, and charged the Royalist infantry. With no Royalist cavalry to oppose them, they put many units to flight. The King had left himself without any proper reserve.

Review of Scott, Turton and Gruber, Edgehill: The Battle Reinterpreted

As his centre gave way, he ordered one of his officers to conduct his sons Charles the Prince of Wales and James the Duke of York to safety while Ruthven rallied his infantry. Some of Balfour's men charged so far into the Royalist position that they menaced the princes' escort and briefly overran the Royalist artillery before withdrawing.

By this time, some of the Royalist horse had rallied and were returning from Kineton. Lieutenant Colonel Robert Welch variously spelled Welch, Welsh, or Walsh [11] of Wilmot's Horse recaptured the Royal Standard by a subterfuge as it was being taken to the Parliamentarian rear as a trophy. Welch also captured two Parliamentarian cannon. As the light began to fade, the battle ended with a fire fight from either side of a dividing ditch, before nightfall eventually brought a natural close to hostilities.

The Royalists had been forced back to the position they had originally advanced from, but had regrouped. By the following morning the King and his army returned to the Edgehill escarpment and Essex's army returned to Kineton. It was a bitterly cold night with a hard frost. This was suggested by contemporary reports as the reason many of the wounded survived, since the cold allowed many wounds to congeal, saving the wounded from bleeding to death or succumbing to infection. The following day, both armies partially formed up again, but neither was willing to resume the battle.

Prelude of Battle of Edgehill & end of a battle - The English Civil War

Charles sent a herald to Essex with a message of pardon if he would agree to the King's terms, but the messenger was roughly handled and forced to return without delivering his message. Although Essex had been reinforced by some of his units which had lagged behind on the march, he withdrew during the evening and the majority of his army marched to Warwick Castle, abandoning seven guns on the battlefield.

In the early hours of Tuesday 25th, Prince Rupert led a strong detachment of horse and dragoons and launched a surprise attack upon what remained of the Parliamentarian baggage train at Kineton and killed many of the battle's wounded survivors discovered within the village. Essex's decision to return northwards to Warwick allowed the King to continue southwards in the direction of London. Rupert urged this course, and was prepared to undertake it with his cavalry alone. With Essex's army still intact, the King chose to move more deliberately, with the whole army.

Essex meanwhile had moved directly to London. Reinforced by the London Trained Bands and many citizen volunteers, his army proved to be too strong for the King to contemplate another battle when the Royalists advanced to Turnham Green. The King withdrew to Oxford, which he made his capital for the rest of the war. With both sides almost evenly matched, it would drag on ruinously for years. It is generally acknowledged that the Royalist cavalry's lack of discipline prevented a clear Royalist victory at Edgehill. Not for the last time in the war, they would gallop after fleeing enemy and then break ranks to plunder, rather than rally to attack the enemy infantry.

Byron's and Digby's men in particular, were not involved in the first clashes and should have been kept in hand rather than allowed to gallop off the battlefield. Patrick Ruthven was elevated to the rank of Lord General of the King's Army, confirming his role as acting commander in the battle. On the Parliamentarian side, Sir James Ramsay who had commanded the left wing horse which had been routed during the battle, was tried by court-martial at St. Albans on 5 November. The court reported that he had done all that it became a gallant man to do.

The last survivor of the battle, William Hiseland , fought also at Malplaquet sixty-seven years later. Lieutenant Colonel Robert Welch, who had recaptured the royal standard, was knighted banneret on the field by King Charles I next morning. The King also granted a patent for a gold medal to be made the first to be awarded to an individual for action on a battlefield commemorating the event in Welch's honour. Captain John Smith also claimed a supporting part in the rescue of the royal standard and was accordingly also knighted banneret, but the medal was minted in Sir Robert Welch's name and honour.

When in exile with Prince Charles, Welch committed a grave error of etiquette defending Prince Rupert. Captain Smith, a Catholic officer of the King's Life Guards, hearing of the loss of the standard, picked up an orange scarf from the field and threw it over his shoulders. Accompanied by one or two of his comrades similarly attired, he slipped in amongst the ranks of the enemy Protected by his scarf, Smith succeeded in escaping hostile notice, and triumphantly laid the recovered standard at the feet of the King.

Charles rewarded him with hearty thanks, and knighted him on the spot. In October, at his temporary base near Shrewsbury, the King decided to march on London in order to force a decisive confrontation with Parliament's main army, commanded by the Earl of Essex.


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